Saturday, 3 December 2011

Structure-Function Impairments Observed In People Addicted To Cocaine

Structure-Function Impairments Observed In People Addicted To Cocaine@import "/css/pagelayout.css";@import "/css/default.css";@import "/css/defaultnews.css";Medical News Today Follow us on FacebookFollow us on TwitterOur RSS feedsYour MNT
login | registerhomeopinions forumcontact usnews categories:a - b Abortion Acid Reflux / GERD ADHD Aid / Disasters Alcohol / Addiction / Drugs Allergy Alternative Medicine Alzheimer's / Dementia Anxiety / Stress Arthritis / Rheumatology Asbestos / Mesothelioma Asthma Autism Back Pain Bio-terrorism / Terrorism Biology / Biochemistry Bipolar Bird Flu / Avian Flu Blood / Hematology Body Aches Bones / Orthopaedics Breast Cancer     c - d Cancer / Oncology Cardiovascular / Cardiology Caregivers / Homecare Cervical Cancer / HPV Vaccine Cholesterol CJD / vCJD / Mad Cow Disease Cleft Palate Clinical Trials / Drug Trials Colorectal Cancer Complementary Medicine Compliance Conferences COPD Cosmetic Medicine Crohn's Cystic Fibrosis Dentistry Depression Dermatology Diabetes Drug Approvals Dyslexia     e - g Ear, Nose and Throat Eating Disorders Eczema / Psoriasis Endocrinology Epilepsy Erectile Dysfunction Eye Health / Blindness Fertility Fibromyalgia Flu / Cold / SARS GastroIntestinal Genetics Gout Gynecology   h - l Headache / Migraine Health InsuranceHearing / Deafness Heart Disease HIV / AIDS Huntingtons Disease Hypertension Immune System / Vaccines Infectious Diseases Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome IT / Internet / E-mail Litigation Liver Disease / Hepatitis Lung Cancer Lupus Lymphology / Lymphedema Lymphoma / Leukemia m - o Medical Devices / Diagnostics Medical Malpractice Medical Practice Management Medical Students / Training Medicare / Medicaid / SCHIP Melanoma / Skin Cancer Men's Health Menopause Mental Health MRI / PET / Ultrasound MRSA / Drug Resistance Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy / ALS Myeloma Neurology / Neuroscience Nursing / Midwifery Nutrition / Diet Obesity / Weight Loss / FitnessOvarian Cancer   p - r Pain / Anesthetics Palliative Care / Hospice Care Pancreatic Cancer Parkinson's Disease Pediatrics / Children's Health Pharma / Biotech Industry Pharmacy / Pharmacist Plastic Surgery Pregnancy / Obstetrics Premature Ejaculation Preventive Medicine Primary Care / General Practice Prostate / Prostate Cancer Psychology / Psychiatry Public Health Radiology / Nuclear Medicine Regulatory Affairs Rehabilitation Respiratory Restless Legs Syndrome   s - z Schizophrenia Seniors / Aging Sexual Health / STDs Sleep / Sleep Disorders Smoking / Quit Smoking Sports Medicine / Fitness Statins Stem Cell Research Stroke Swine Flu Transplants / Organ Donations Tropical Diseases Tuberculosis Urology / Nephrology Vascular Veterans / Ex-Servicemen Veterinary Viruses / Bacteria Water - Air Quality / Agriculture Women's Health   Structure-Function Impairments Observed In People Addicted To CocaineMain Category: Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal Drugs
Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience
Article Date: 01 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST

email icon email to a friend   printer icon printer friendly   write icon opinions  
Current Article Ratings:
Patient / Public:not yet rated

Healthcare Prof:not yet rated


The more gray matter you have in the decision-making, thought-processing part of your brain, the better your ability to evaluate rewards and consequences. That may seem like an obvious conclusion, but a new study conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is the first to show this link between structure and function in healthy people - and the impairment of both structure and function in people addicted to cocaine. The study appears in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

"This study documents for the first time the importance to reward processing of gray matter structural integrity in the parts of the brain's prefrontal cortex that are involved in higher-order executive function, including self-control and decision-making," said Muhammad Parvaz, a post-doctoral fellow at Brookhaven Lab and a co-lead author on the paper.

"Previous studies conducted at Brookhaven and elsewhere have explored the structural integrity of the prefrontal cortex in drug addiction and the functional components of reward processing, but these studies were conducted separately," Parvaz said. "We wanted to know whether the specific function of reward processing could be 'mapped' onto the underlying brain structure - whether and how these two are related," he added.

Differences in gray matter volume - the amount of brain matter made up of nerve cell bodies, as opposed to the "white matter" axons that form the connections between cells - have been observed in a range of neuropsychiatric diseases when compared with healthy states, explained Anna Konova, the other co-lead author on the paper. "We wanted to know more about what these differences mean functionally in healthy individuals and in drug-addicted individuals," she said.

To explore this structure-function relationship, the scientists performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans to measure brain volume in 17 healthy people and 22 cocaine users. The scans collect structural measurements for the entire brain, and can be analyzed voxel-by-voxel - the equivalent of three-dimensional pixels - to get detailed measurements for individual brain regions.

Within a short period of the MRI scans, the scientists also used electrodes placed on the research subjects' scalps to measure a particular electrical signal known as the P300 (an event-related potential derived from an ongoing electroencephalogram, or EEG, that is time-locked to a particular event). This specific measure can index brain activity related to reward processing. During these electrical recordings, the subjects performed a timed psychological task (pressing buttons according to a specific set of rules) with the prospect of earning varying levels of monetary reward, from no money up to 45 cents for each correct response with a total potential reward of $50.

Previous studies by the research team have shown that, in healthy subjects, the P300 signal increases in magnitude with the amount of monetary reward offered. Cocaine-addicted individuals, however, do not exhibit this differential response in the P300 measure of brain activity, even though they, like the healthy subjects, rate the task as more interesting and exciting when the potential reward is greater.

The current study extended these results by linking them for the first time with the structural measurements.

The scientists used statistical methods to look for correlations between the difference in brain activity observed in the high-reward and no-reward conditions - how much the brain's P300 response changed with increasing reward - and the gray matter volume in various parts of the brain as measured voxel-by-voxel in the MRI scans.

In the healthy subjects, the magnitude of change in the P300 signal with increasing reward was most strongly correlated with the volume of gray matter in three regions of the prefrontal cortex.

"The higher the gray matter volume in those particular regions, the more brain activity increased for the highest monetary reward as compared to the non-reward condition," Konova said.

The cocaine-addicted individuals had reduced gray matter volume in these regions compared with the healthy subjects, and no detectable differences between the reward conditions in the P300 measure of brain activity. There were also no significant correlations between the former and latter - structure and function measures - in the cocaine-addicted subjects.

"These findings suggest that impaired reward processing may be attributed to deficits in the structural integrity of the brain, particularly in prefrontal cortical regions implicated in higher order cognitive and emotional function," Parvaz said. "This study therefore validates the use of the structural measures obtained by MRI as indicative of functional deficits."

The implications are important for understanding the potential loss of control and disadvantageous decision-making that can occur in people suffering from drug addiction, Konova explained: "These structure-function deficits may translate into dysfunctional behaviors in the real world. Specifically, impaired ability to compare rewards, and reduced gray matter in the prefrontal cortex, may culminate in the compromised ability to experience pleasure and to control behavior, especially in high-risk situations - for example, when craving or under stress - leading individuals to use drugs despite catastrophic consequences."

The authors acknowledge that there are still questions about whether these changes in brain structure and function are a cause or a consequence of addiction. But the use of multimodal imaging techniques, as illustrated by this study, may open new ways to address these and other questions relevant to understanding human motivation in both health and disease states, with particular relevance to treating drug addiction.

Additional References Citations Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release. Click 'references' tab above for source.
Visit our alcohol / addiction / illegal drugs section for the latest news on this subject. This research was performed at Brookhaven Lab under the guidance of Rita Goldstein, Director of Brookhaven Lab’s Neuropsychoimaging Group and the corresponding author on the paper. Dardo Tomasi of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, who runs Brookhaven’s MRI facility, and Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), were co-authors. The research was funded by a grant to Goldstein from the National Institutes of Health and by the General Clinical Research Center of Stony Brook University.
Scientific Paper: Structural Integrity of the Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Electrocortical Sensitivity to Reward http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_00166
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

MLA
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory. "Structure-Function Impairments Observed In People Addicted To Cocaine." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 1 Dec. 2011. Web.
1 Dec. 2011. APA
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2011, December 1). "Structure-Function Impairments Observed In People Addicted To Cocaine." Medical News Today. Retrieved from
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/238435.php.

Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.


Rate this article:
(Hover over the stars then click to rate) Patient / Public:
or Health Professional:
Add Your Opinion

Please note that we publish your name, but we do not publish your email address. It is only used to let you know when your message is published. We do not use it for any other purpose. Please see our privacy policy for more information.

If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name.

All opinions are moderated before being included (to stop spam)

Your Name:* E-mail Address:* Title For Opinion:* Opinion:* This is to help prevent SPAM submissions. Please enter the words exactly as they appear, including capital letters and punctuation.*

* Fields marked with a * need to be filled in before you hit the submit button.

Contact Our News Editors

For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form.

Please send any medical news or health news press releases to:

Note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. For more information, please read our terms and conditions.

navigation:

back to top
home
popular news by year
all written articles
health videos
contact us
your news:

news category list
personalize homepage
weekly newsletters
daily news alerts

company:

about us
advertising
news licensing
article submission

more:

accessibility
help / faq
links
free website feeds
free tools & content


MediLexicon International Ltd LogoPrivacy Policy | Terms and Conditions

MediLexicon International Ltd
Bexhill-on-Sea, United Kingdom
MediLexicon International Ltd © 2004-2011 All rights reserved.

Everyday Health Network
Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal DrugsWhat is Addiction?People with an addiction do not have control over what they are doing, taking or using. Their addiction may reach a point at which it is harmful. Addictions do not only include physical things we consume, such as drugs or alcohol, but may include... Read more...Most Popular Articles

1 Month 3 Months 6 Months 1Children With High IQ More Likely To Subsequently Use Illegal Drugs2Painkiller Overdose Death Rate Triples In Ten Years, USA3Alcohol - Its Good News And Bad4Breast Cancer Risk And Low Alcohol Consumption5Moderate Alcohol Intake Linked To Lower Female Diabetes Risk6The Effects Of Beer And Wine On The Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease7Nicotine Could Act As A Gateway Drug8Just One Drink Per Day May Be Cause Of GI Woes Like Bloating, Gas, Abdominal Pain, Diarrhea 1Children With High IQ More Likely To Subsequently Use Illegal Drugs2Magic Mushrooms Can Bring About Lasting Personality Changes3Marijuana Use Grows, While Methamphetamine Falls In USA4Painkiller Overdose Death Rate Triples In Ten Years, USA5How Cannabis Causes 'Cognitive Chaos' In The Brain6Strawberries Protect The Stomach From Alcohol7Immune System May Influence How Alcohol Affects Behavior8Diabetes Type 1 - Alcohol Related Deaths Rise Significantly9Alcohol - Its Good News And Bad10Want To Resist Temptation? A New Study Suggests Thinking Might Not Always Help You 1Children With High IQ More Likely To Subsequently Use Illegal Drugs2Magic Mushrooms Can Bring About Lasting Personality Changes3Binge Drinking Damages Teenage Girls' Brains More Than Boys'4Marijuana Use Grows, While Methamphetamine Falls In USA5Steroid Testing For New Jersey Police Officers6Drink Wine To Beat Dementia Risk, But Find The Balance Study Reports7Networking Site Usage By Teens Linked To Higher Smoking, Drinking And Drug Consumption, USA8Recreational Drugs Sold As Bath Salts Causing Serious Public Health Concern, USA9Painkiller Overdose Death Rate Triples In Ten Years, USA10How Cannabis Causes 'Cognitive Chaos' In The Brain

Follow Our Alcohol News On TwitterFollow Us On TwitterGet the latest news for this category delivered straight to your Twitter account. Simply visit our Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal Drugs Twitter account and select the 'follow' option.
Conditions Information-- select from list --Abscess (Dental)AchalasiaAcid RefluxAcneAcoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)AcromegalyActinomicosisAcute Lymphoblastic LeukemiaAcute Myeloid LeukemiaAddictionAddison’s Disease (Primary Adrenal Insufficiency)ADHDAgoraphobiaAir Embolism (Gas Embolism)Alcohol PoisoningAlcoholic Liver DiseaseAlcoholismAlopecia AreataAltitude Sickness (Acute Mountain Sickness)Alzheimer's DiseaseAMD / Macular DegenerationAmenorrheaAmnesiaAmniocentesisAnagen EffluviumAnal CancerAnal FissureAnal Itching (Itchy Bottom)AnaphylaxisAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)AnemiaAnemia (Vitamin Deficiency)AneurysmAngerAnginaAngioedemaAnorexia & BulimiaAntiphospholipid Syndrome (Hughes Syndrome)AnxietyAphasiaAppendicitisArrhythmiaArthritisAsperger SyndromeAsthmaAstigmatismAtaxiaAtrial FibrillationAtrophic Vaginitis (Vaginal Atrophy)AutismAvian InfluenzaBack PainBacterial VaginosisBaker's Cyst (Popliteal Cyst)BalanitisBartholin's CystBed Sores (Pressure Ulcers)Bell's PalsyBinge Eating DisorderBipolar DisorderBird FluBladder cancerBladder StonesBlepharitisBody Dysmorphic DisorderBody Odor (B.O.)Boils, furuncles, carbunclesBone CancerBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)BotulismBrain Abscess (Cerebral Abscess)Breast CancerBreast Cancer (Male)Breast LumpsBronchiectasis (Bronchiectasia)BronchitisBursitisCancerCandidiasisCarbon Monoxide PoisoningCarpal Tunnel SyndromeCartilage DamageCataractsCatatonic SchizophreniaCelluliteCellulitisCerebral PalsyCerebrovascular DiseaseCervical SpondylosisCharcot-Marie-Tooth DiseaseChildhood SchizophreniaChlamydiaCholecystitis (Gallbladder Inflammation)CholeraCholestasis Of Pregnancy (Obstetric Cholestasis)CholesterolChronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)Chronic Kidney FailureChronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)CirrhosisCJDClaustrophobiaClostridium Difficile (C. Difficile)Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)Cluster HeadacheCold SoresColicColon CancerColorectal CancerComa (Comatose)Common ColdComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)ConcussionCongenital Heart Disease (Congenital Heart Defect)Conjunctivitis (allergic)Conjunctivitis (infective)ConstipationCOPD & EmphysemaCorns / CallusesCoronary Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease)Costello SyndromeCoughCrabs (Pubic Lice)CraniosynostosisCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)CristoporidiosisCrohn's DiseaseCroupCryptorchidism (Undescended Testicle)Cushing's SyndromeCystic FibrosisCystitisCystsCytomegalovirus (CMV)DandruffDeep Vein ThrombosisDehydrationDementiaDengue Fever?DepressionDetached RetinaDHTDiabetesDiabetes InsipidusDiabetic RetinopathyDiarrheaDiphtheriaDiscoid Eczema (Nummular Dermatitis)Disorganized Schizophrenia (Hebephrenia)DiverticulitisDouble Vision (Diplopia)Down SyndromeDry Eye SyndromeDry Mouth (Xerostomia)Dupuytren’s ContractureDysenteryDyslexiaDysphagiaDyspraxiaDystoniaE.coliEctopic PregnancyEctropionEczemaEdemaEmbolismEmphysemaEncephalitisEndocarditisEndometriosisEnuresis - BedwettingEpidermolysis BullosaEpiglottitisEpilepsyEpiphora (Watering Eye)Erectile DysfunctionEsophageal CancerEsophagitisEuthanasia (Assisted Suicide)Exophthalmos (Bulging Eyes)Eye Melanoma (Ocular Melanoma)Febrile Seizures (Convulsions)FeverFibroidsFibromyalgiaFlat Feet (Fallen Arches)FlatulenceFood AllergyFracture (Broken Bones)FrostbiteFrozen ShoulderGallstonesGanglion CystGangreneGastroenteritis / Food PoisoningGenital WartsGERDGiardiasisGilbert SyndromeGlandular FeverGlaucomaGlomerulonephritisGlue EarGluten Intolerance / Celiac DiseaseGoiter (Goitre)GonorrheaGoutGraves’ DiseaseGuillain-BarrĂ© SyndromeGum Disease (Gingivitis)Hair Loss / BaldnessHalitosis (Bad Breath)HangoverHay FeverHead LiceHeadachesHeart AttackHeart Block (AV Bundle/Bundle Branch Block)Heart DiseaseHeart FailureHeartburnHeat Rash (Prickly Heat)Heel PainHemochromatosisHemophiliaHemroids / HemorrhoidsHepatitisHerniaHerpesHiccupsHiccups (Hiccoughs)High Blood PressureHirsutism (Excessive Hairiness)HIV / AIDSHivesHormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)Huntington's DiseaseHydrocephalus (Water On The Brain)Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)HypertensionHyperthyroidismHypertrophic CardiomyopathyHypertrophic CardiomyopathyHypochondriaHypoglycemiaHypotensionHypothermiaHypothyroidismHysterectomyImpacted Wisdom TeethImpetigoIncontinence (bowel)Incontinence (urinary)IndigestionInfant JaundiceInfertilityInfluenza / FluIngrown ToenailInsomniaIrregular Periods (Oligomenorrhea)Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)Irritable Hip (Acute Transient Synovitis)Japanese EncephalitisJaundice (icterus)Jet LagKawasaki DiseaseKetosisKidney CancerKidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)Kidney StonesLactose IntoleranceLaryngeal Cancer (Cancer Of The Larynx)LaryngitisLazy EyeLeg CrampsLegionnaires' DiseaseLeukemiaLichen PlanusListeria Infection (Listeriosis)Liver CancerLung CancerLupusLyme DiseaseLymphedemaLymphomaMal De Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS)MalariaMalnutritionMarfan SyndromeMastitisMeaslesMeniere's diseaseMeningitisMenopauseMental HealthMesotheliomaMetatarsalgia (Stone Bruise)MigraineMolesMolluscum ContagiosumMorning Sickness (Nausea Gravidarum)Morton's NeuromaMotion Sickness (Travel Sickness)Motor Neuron DiseaseMouth CancerMRSAMultiple MyelomaMultiple SclerosisMumpsMunchausen SyndromeMunchausen Syndrome By ProxyMuscular Dystrophy (MD)Myasthenia Gravis (Goldflam Disease)Nail Fungal InfectionNarcissistic Personality DisorderNarcolepsyNasal PolypsNDM-1Necrotizing FasciitisNeurofibromatosisNeuromyelitis Optica (Devic's Disease)NeuropathyNicotine Dependence (Dangers Of Smoking)Noonan SyndromeNorovirus InfectionObesityObsessive Compulsive DisorderObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)Occupational AsthmaOpioid-Induced Constipation (OIC)Oral Thrush (Babies)Oral Thrush (Oral Candidiasis)OsteoarthritisOsteochondritis DissecansOsteomyelitis (Bone Infection)OsteopathyOsteoporosisOtitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)Ovarian CancerOvarian CystPaget's Disease (Of Bone)PainPainful Intercourse (Dyspareunia)Pancreatic CancerPancreatitis (acute)Pancreatitis (chronic)Panic AttacksParanoid SchizophreniaParasitesParkinson's DiseasePelvic Inflammatory DiseasePeptic UlcersPericarditisPeriod PainsPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)Personality DisordersPimplesPinworms (Threadworms)PleurisyPneumococcal DiseasePneumoniaPolioPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)Postherpetic NeuralgiaPostpartum DepressionPrader-Willi SyndromePremature EjaculationPrimary Sclerosing CholangitisProgeriaProstate CancerPsoriasisPsoriasisPulmonary Edema (Oedema)Pulmonary EmbolismQ FeverRabiesRadiation Sickness (Radiation Poisoning)Ramsay Hunt SyndromeRaynaud's DiseaseRectocele (Proctocele)Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)Restless Legs SyndromeRheumatic FeverRheumatoid ArthritisRhinitis, Non-AllergicRicketsRingwormRosaceaRubellaRuptured SpleenSalivary Gland CancerSalmonellaSARSScabiesScarlet Fever (Scarlatina)Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)Schizoaffective DisorderSchizophreniaSciaticaSclerodermaScoliosisScurvySeasonal Affective DisorderSexual Addiction (Nymphomania)ShinglesShort Stature (Dwarfism)SinusitisSjogren's SyndromeSkin Cancer / MelanomaSlapped Cheek SyndromeSocial Anxiety DisorderSpina BifidaSpinal Muscular AtrophySquint (Strabismus)StammeringStrep Throat / Sore ThroatStressStress IncontinenceStrokeStye (Hordeolum)Subarachnoid HemorrhageSuicidal ThoughtsSwine FluSyphilisTachycardia (Fast Heart Beat)Tapeworms (Cestodes)Teeth Grinding (Bruxism)Tendinitis (Tendonitis)Testicular CancerTesticular TorsionTetanusThyroid CancerThyroid NodulesTinnitusTiredness / FatigueTobacco Smoke ToxinsTonsillitisTourette SyndromeToxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)Transient Ischemic Attacktransient ischemic attackTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)Trigeminal NeuralgiaTriple X SyndromeTuberculosisTurner SyndromeTyphoidUlcerative ColitisUmbilical HerniaUrinary Tract Infection (UTI)UveitisVaculitis (Angiitis)Vaginal CancerVaginismusVaginitisValley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)VaricoceleVaricose Eczema (Stasis Dermatitis)Ventricular FibrillationVertigoVesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)Vitamin B12 DeficiencyVocal Cord Paresis (Paralysis)Von Willebrand DiseaseVulvar Cancer (Vulval Cancer)VulvodyniaWartsWater On The Knee (Knee Effusion)Water Retention (Fluid Retention)Wegener's GranulomatosisWernicke-Korsakoff SyndromeWest Nile Virus (WNV)Wheat AllergyWhipple's DiseaseWilliams SyndromeWilms’ Tumor (Nephroblastoma)Wolff-Parkinson-White SyndromeYellow FeverYipsZollinger-Ellison Syndrome

View list of all 'What Is...' articles »

View the original article here

No comments:

Post a Comment